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The 2019 Samoa Pacific Games are Closed 20 July 2019

Friday, July 26, 2019

All good things must come to an end and last Saturday, 20 July, the 2019 Samoa XVI Pacific Games wonderful closing ceremony held at Apia Park Stadium.  Norfolk Island team members, as one of twenty-four Pacific Nations, joined the thousands of athletes, officials, volunteers and the stunning performers and celebrated and farewelled Samoa at the closing ceremony.

It was exciting to connected to the live streaming on Saturday evening as I prepared to watch the closing ceremony.  I was please to connect to the link just in time to capture a few images of our Norfolk Island team members as they entered the stadium for the evenings event.

Proudly holding the Norfolk Island Flag was Doug Creek, the winner of three bronze medals in pistol shooting.  Congratulations to the shooters, another great games with Doug and Ken being rewarded with Bronze medals.

Norfolk Islander team members attending the closing ceremony were the Netball team, Squash team, shooters and Garry Bigg the silver medal winner from the Men’s Fours Bowls.  They all enjoyed the night of entertainment and honoured to be parted of the Norfolk Island team.

I have found a couple of images of our team on Facebook as well as a few blurry photos I took on my computer while live streaming.

It felt emotional to watch the games closing ceremony.  I was one of the Norfolk Island team members who had attended the amazing opening ceremony.  It would have been great to still be in Samoa for the closing ceremony, but I was one of the Norfolk Island lawn bowls team who returned home to Norfolk Island on Friday 19 July.  Also, members of the Archery team have also departed from Samoa after the first week of competition.

Now that everyone is heading back home to Norfolk Island, the thoughts of the next Pacific Games will be on the mind of many.  The Pacific Games are held every four years and the next host will be the Solomon Islands in 2023.  The games logo is “Challenge, Celebrate and Unite”.  The Pacific Nations were invited to join in 2023 in Solomon Islands for the XVII Pacific Games.

Thank you, Samoa, wonderful host of the XVI Pacific Games.  Congratulations Team Norfolk on a successful 2019 games.

Betty Matthews

July 2019

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Team Norfolk Return Home from Samoa

Friday, July 26, 2019

Last week members of Team Norfolk sports teams and Mal Tarrant, the president of Norfolk Island Amateur Sports, started returning home from Samoa 2019 XVI Pacific Games.  It was exciting to be part of the Norfolk Island lawn bowls team who flew back to Norfolk Island on the Sydney flight on Friday 19th July.  The flight crew were also excited that were medalist on the flight and congratulated the team as we landed in Norfolk Island.

The welcome home was overwhelming, with family and friends and bowls club members at the airport cheering and clapping our arrival.  This was followed with a fantastic reception at the Norfolk Island Bowling Club on Friday evening.

Thank you to the community and bowling club members from the wonderful evening.  It was fantastic to be back home with everyone, sharing our experiences from the Samoa 2019 Pacific Games.  The medal winners enjoyed showing their shiny medals to everyone and I took many photographs during the night.

Teddy Evans spoke to each of the team members who won medals.  This had been an amazing successful international event.  All the Norfolk Island bowlers played in finals and the teams won two gold and two silver medals and 9 out of 10 bowlers returning with medals.


Petal Jones, Gold Ladies Fours and Gold Ladies’ Pairs

Shae Wilson, Silver Ladies Singles, Gold Ladies’ Pairs

Ann Snell, Gold Ladies’ Fours

Tess Evans, Gold Ladies’ Fours

Tracey Wora, Gold Ladies’ Fours

Garry Ryan, Silver Men’s Fours

Garry Bigg, Silver Men’s Fours

Stephen Matthews, Silver Men’s Fours

Trev Grow, Silver Men’s Fours

Phil Jones played in the finals of the Men’s Singles

Also added to the excitement of Team Norfolk was the great sportsmanship of all our representatives and the shooters were rewarded with three Bronze medals.  Congratulations Doug and Kev with your amazing achievement in the Pistol shooting competitions and Doug Creek was also the Norfolk Island Flag Bearer at the closing ceremony.

The Team Norfolk members have also continued returning to Norfolk Island during the last few days.  Everyone will feel excited to be back home and to share their stories of Samoa.  Also returning this week was Sheryl Yelavich, our Chef de Mission during the Pacific Games.  Thank you, Sheryl, for taking care of everyone in Samoa.

Thank you to the Norfolk Island Bowls Club, manager Tim Sheridan and kitchen and bar staff for our welcome home celebration.  Thank you to Norfolk Island Amateur Sports and everyone for supporting the teams and assisting in making it possible for the Norfolk Island teams attend the Samoa 2019 XVI Pacific Games.

Betty Matthews

July 2019

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Norfolk Island Flora & Fauna Society National Tree Day 2019

Friday, July 26, 2019

This weekend we celebrate National Tree Day, cofounded in 1996 by Planet Ark and Olivia Newton-John as an initiative to help combat deforestation and the loss of natural habitats for local native wildlife and flora.

The day is essentially a call to action for all of us to get our hands dirty and do something to support our native species. Over the last 23 years, Norfolk Islanders have participated by planting in coastal reserves and the National Park, counted among the 300,000 people here and across Australia, volunteering their time to engage in environmental activities together, sharing knowledge and information which help to create a better understanding us. While Planet Ark promotes every day as ‘Tree Day’, the day is officially celebrated on two dedicated days – Schools Tree Day and National Tree Day fall on the last Friday and last Sunday in July. This year, Schools Tree Day is Friday 26th July and National Tree Day is Sunday 28th July.

There are not many native trees available for a planting yet, as stocks are just getting growing at the Parks’ native plant nursery. Instead of supporting a planting this year, the Norfolk Island Flora & Fauna Society is proud to announce the imminent unveiling of the Norfolk Island Significant Tree Register as the first part of our new website. This initiative is the culmination of years of data gathering and observations, and aims to protect significant trees around Norfolk Island as an ongoing project. It will also be a record of lost trees, which had iconic status for their age, beauty, position or stories around them. The trees that will be entered on the Register initially meet at least one of nine significance criteria:

a.            it is important in demonstrating the evolution or pattern of Norfolk Island’s history

b.            it demonstrates rare, uncommon or endangered aspects of Norfolk Island’s cultural heritage

c.             it has potential to yield information that will contribute to the knowledge and understanding of Norfolk Island’s history

d.            it is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class or classes of cultural places

e.            it is important because of its aesthetic significance

f.             it is important in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technological achievement at a particular period

g.            it has a strong or special association with the life or work of a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons

h.            it has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in Norfolk Island’s history.

i.          Lost Iconic trees

As this is intended to be an ongoing project, we encourage residents to nominate trees which they feel meet one or more of the above criteria. Trees can be nominated for addition to the register by emailing a photograph and the reason you think it should be added, to the Society via President Margaret Christian ( or Helen Brackin (, or by post at PO Box 702.  

A number of already nominated trees are yet to be added, so please be patient as we work through the list, or nominate them again if you like.

The Society meets at 6.00pm on the first Monday of each month at the A&H Hall, behind Rawson Hall, Taylors Road. Visitors and new members are always welcome.

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Norfolk Island tracking Station

Friday, July 19, 2019

Norfolk Island (off the coast of NSW): Opened in 1969, this radio receiving station is manned by the US Air Force. Used to study 'ionspheric propagation in relation to long range radio paths' it is couched in such general terms it could be used for anything. 

It was constructed by private US contractors. The suitability of the site may lie in the fact that after World War II, a large buried copper radial aerial was left on the island. It is speculated that it monitors Chinese and Russian radio signals, and also acts as a relay station for US Navy ships in the area. 

The type of ionspheric research it is reputed to be doing was quite popular in the 1930's but is now considered to be old hat.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

With the SP Games well underway in Samoa, mention needs to be given to the OCEANIA ATHLETICS CHAMPIONSHIPS recently held in Townsville and particularly the performances of the two young Norfolk Island athletes who met the qualifying standards and travelled to compete at these Championships - TK Morgan and Nathaniel Kalsrap.

This Oceania Athletics Championship was the largest athletics competition held in the region this year with over 720 athletes from every Federation from Oceania competing. Some athletes hoping to gain qualification for the World Championships in Doha later this year, and some athletes just hoping to perform a PB and do their countries proud!...and that’s exactly what our two athletes did!

With an impressive list of current World and Olympic representatives spread amongst the large fields in both the track and field events, the competition was excellent and a real thrill for our two young athletes to compete at a competition of this standard, amongst athletes of this calibre.

This competition hosted Under 18 and Under 20 age grouped events in both track and field, which was more suited to our young qualifiers (TK 18yrs and Nathaniel 15ys) than the ‘open age group only’ competition offered at the South Pacific Games. As a result, Athletics Norfolk Island chose this competition over the SPG for these young athletes to cut their teeth at international competition.  

TK competed first in the U20’s 100m sprint clocking a time of 12:20sec. TK started well and ran a solid race but relaxed through the finish, resulting in the 12:20 recorded time. His race better than the 12:20 time suggests.

Nathaniel raced next in U18’s 100m with a blistering time of 11:84, narrowly missing the final by .30sec. For a 15yr old, this time shows potential.  

TK then moved to the field events, sending the 800g Javelin 43.94m to record a PB on the 3rd throw of his series. Again, showing great potential as an 18yr old throwing an 800gram implement.

A good effort for his first international competition on a synthetic surface.

Nathaniel was back on the track next for the U18 200m with a strong swinging cross wind, however only recording a head wind of -0.6 at the time his heat. Nathaniel clocked a reasonable 24.18sec needing 23.68 to qualify for the final.

With the performances exhibited by these two young athletes, they’ve both shown real potential for quality future performances with the aide of some good coaching.

Be proud of these two young kids Norfolk. They did Norfolk proud both on and off the track.

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Norfolk Island Health and Wellbeing Expo 2019

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Norfolk Island falls into the catchment of Central and Eastern Sydney Primary Health Network (CESPHN). After a needs assessment conducted in 2016, funding was provided for a full-time Health and Wellbeing Coordinator who commenced in March 2018.

A one year Norfolk Island Health Promotion Plan was implemented over 2018 to early 2019 and following the approval of a further three years funding, the current Norfolk Island Community Health Promotion Plan covers April 2019 – April 2021. This plan can be found on the Norfolk Island Health and Residential Aged Care Service (NIHRACS) website (

One of the highlights of the previous and current plans is the annual Health and Wellbeing Expo. The second event was held on Saturday July 13. The Expo aimed to showcase local and mainland Australia health and wellbeing services and programs. The Expo was held at Rawson Hall and consisted of over 30 exhibitors, five presentations on a diverse range of topics and there was a range of tasty and healthy food and drink options available.

Several service providers travelled to Norfolk especially for the Expo, including Feros Care, the National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA), South East Sydney Local Health District (SESLHD), Autism Spectrum Australia (ASPECT), Life without Barriers and CESPHN. They joined local service providers and agencies, both for profit and not for profit, to provide the community with a comprehensive selection of information and health improvement opportunities.

Manager of NIHRACS, Kath Boman and Mayor Robin Adams provided the official opening and Administrator, Eric Hutchinson was master of ceremonies for the presentations.

The presentations covered topics including diabetes, spinal health, mental fitness, growing your own vegetables and ensuring the safety and quality of water, a very important topic in the local community.

As an added bonus there were several lucky door prizes available, courtesy of a generous donation to support the Expo. Congratulations to all the lucky winners.

Although a head count wasn’t kept due to there being several entrance points, it was estimated that well over 200 people attended the event. A formal evaluation summary will be provided as part of the reporting activities for the NI Community Health Promotion Plan. Anectdotally the reports from those who attended and many of the exhibitors has been overwhelmingly positive with a positive “vibe” being reported by many people.

The Expo is a great example of the community coming together, both to pull together to organise the logistics and then to open up to the whole community to come along and talk, listen and learn from each other.

There are so many individuals, organisations, community groups, businesses and service providers to thank that the list would be longer than the space available, so a big thank you yorlye to everyone involved and let’s look forward to an even bigger and better Expo next year

Karen Innes-Walker

Health and wellbeing Coordinator

15 July 2019

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Rock Update - 12 July 2019

Friday, July 12, 2019

Well, we all know we have lost the fight as far as local jobs and local rock are concerned. It’s no secret that Boral will be using minimal local labour and they are bringing in imported rock, as well as their own equipment.

However, the fight for the protection of our environment is far from over!

According to experts, the processes and treatments of these imported products is required to be open and transparent. My interpretation of this statement is that we, the community, should be aware of all procedures be put in place to safeguard our environment.

We may be considered a part of Australia for political reasons, but on an environmental level, we are radically different. We don’t have snakes, cane toads, midgies, fire ants and various other toxic vermin over here. Some of the noxious weeds readily available in Australia are not present here. The differences in our ecosystem, environment and climate are too numerous to mention. We must remember a harmless weed in some areas of the world can have a devastating affect in others.

Our island has remained free of these potentially dangerous weeds, pests and pathogens. We have monitored what has come into the island and been aware of any potential effects on our environment. It is no accident that Norfolk Island has been looked after so well. I am not saying we had a perfect score, but we certainly did a better job than the present system.

Whenever I came home, I loved to sit on the grass…not a major achievement for those who have lived here all your lives, but this was one of the few times I was able to enjoy this simple pleasure. In Australia, there various types of ants and spiders that live in the grass, and man, can they bite!

The other day I was moving old palm fronds. I wouldn’t be doing this if we had snakes here. Even cleaning a pool filter or pond, you need to be on the lookout for snakes. I don’t miss that at all, just sayen.

We take it for granted that we are safe when we work in the garden, run in long grass or roll down a hill. This will all change dramatically if the imported rock, sand and even equipment isn’t treated correctly before it leaves Australia, and especially, BEFORE it lands here. Although there are no guarantees it will eliminate all hitchhikers; ensuring the correct and proper systems are in place is better than having none at all.

When the Rock Group first met with the administrator about the possible importation of rock, he told us he could not help us if we used the environment as our main focus. He advised that for every problem we brought up, a management plan would be created through biosecurity services.

If this is the case, then perhaps we should be pushing for a management plan for each and every potential biosecurity issue. Perhaps we also need to insist we have a quarantine process in place for everything Boral intends to bring here, and it certainly wouldn’t hurt to have one in place for ships offloading our freight either.

We have been playing Russian roulette with our environment/biosecurity for long enough. If we just believe and accept that Boral is going to do ‘the right thing’ for Norfolk Island, and we do nothing, ask nothing and expect nothing, we will most likely end up with everything!

We only have one shot at this. Come September or thereabouts, it will be too late. It only takes one pregnant toad; one pregnant paralysis tick; one pregnant red backed spider to produce thousands more.

I know this sounds like I am scaremongering, but in all honesty, you should be scared, and you should be worried. Boral will come here and do their job, which is what they are contracted to do, and then they will leave. We will be the ones who live with the consequences. I haven’t heard about any funds that will be allocated to assist with the clean up/eradication of any ‘unwelcome guests’ as a result of the airport upgrade. So, who do you think will be paying for this? That’s right, us!

As a community we need to know what practises and procedures will be put in place to protect our island home.

The big question is, what are you going to do to protect our environment and lifestyle? The Rock Group has been doing all it can, but we all need pull together to look out for our island, the time for sitting back and hoping for the best is long gone!


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Anglicare is celebrating its third year serving Norfolk Island!

Friday, July 05, 2019

We have recently purchased new books for our Street Library and have just received new equipment for our playgroups.

The Anglicare Children’s Library is now open for borrowing! Books can be borrowed from:

  • Our office at 102A Taylors Road 9am – 4pm most days
  • Our funky street Library box outside the office - 24 hours

Please look after our books and return the ones you have read for a new one.  We have a range of books aimed at children from birth through to toddlers, including a range of novels for primary school. Our love for a book usually relates to the person who read that story to us - a parent, grand-parent or special person in our life. Reading to and with children, is one of the best gifts you can give them. More than just the emotional connection, reading aloud to children is considered the single most important activity to build the skills to learn to read.

We are excited to have more equipment for our playgroups including giant puzzles, giant fishing sets, painting easels. For our Thursday Mothers Group, we have added baby gyms.

Anglicare has welcomed new staff in 2019, introducing Sarah Robinson who is part of the driving force of our new Nature Playgroup titled ‘In A’ Stik’. Sarah has a Bachelor in Early Childhood and Primary Education. Sarah has over 15 years’ experience as a classroom teacher, as well as educating in preschool, child care & vocational care. Sarah is a passionate advocate of child-centred, play-based, creative learning. Sarah is inspired by the curriculums of Rudolf Steiner, the Netherlands & Finland and is passionate about outdoor education; connecting children with their natural environment, wholesome play & the world around them.

Trish Smith has joined the Anglicare team and is studying a Diploma in Early Childhood Education & Care. Trish has organised and ran volunteer Mothers groups which evolved into playgroups exploring various locations on Norfolk Island.

Combining Sarah and Trish’s passion in getting outdoors, there are plans for a Nature Playgroup for 0 – 5 years old’s. Look out for the information session on our brand new Nature Playgroup launching in just 2 weeks.

Mothers Group is still on during the school holidays, pop in for good coffee, meet other mums in the Anglicare Lounge Room at 102A Taylors Road. Contact 22232 for more information.

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Friday, July 05, 2019

Today Friday 5 July 2019 we join hands across the ocean with our family and friends on the Isle of Man who are celebrating their National Day – Tynwald Day. The Isle of Man flag will fly proudly today on Norfolk

The historical ties between Norfolk Island and the Isle of Man were set in motion with the marriage on 4 February 1781 of William Bligh to Elizabeth “Betsy” Betham whose family lived on the Isle of Man; and while history tells us that Fletcher Christian was born in England, his ancestors came from the Isle of Man where the Christian family had been prominent for probably a thousand years.

The story of the mutiny on the Bounty in 1789 is a tale of conspiracy, adventure and romance, a tale that today links the Isle of Man and Norfolk Island. Hollywood has produced at least three movies with high-profile actors taking on the roles of Captain William Bligh, lead mutineer Master’s Mate Fletcher Christian and Midshipman Peter Heywood from the Isle of Man.

This historical relationship led to the signing of a Cultural Agreement between the Isle of Man and Norfolk Island on 5 July 2011; a cultural accord that provides a platform for our two communities to share information on heritage, governance, business and culture, including music and dance.

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ANAO Audit of DIRDC on Norfolk Island – Is Scepticism Justified? (Part 1)

Friday, June 28, 2019

As a result of the Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act of 2015, the Australian Government on 1 July 2016 abolished self-government on Norfolk Island and replaced it with governmental arrangements based on a NSW regional council model, and with substantially reduced powers. The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) has now carried out a performance audit to "assess whether the Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities has designed and implemented appropriate governance and administration arrangements for the transition and delivery of sustainable reforms to services on Norfolk Island": the Department (DIRDC) being the Commonwealth department with overall responsibility for Norfolk Island through its Territories Branch. The completed ANAO Audit Report was tabled in the Australian Parliament on 31 May 2019. (1)

The Audit Report gives, for the first time and in public, a clear description of the Commonwealth governmental processes undertaken in the implementation of the Act of 2015, including processes involving the transitional administration. Such a description had not previously been available, so for this publication we must be grateful. However many on Norfolk Island, who have been waiting a long time for a fair and transparent account of DIRDC's conduct on the island in recent times are sceptical about the content and conclusions of the Report. Should they be? Well, "No", and "Yes". Here's why.

The ANAO is the national auditor for the Parliament of Australia and the Government of Australia, and reports directly to the Australian Parliament. The ANAO is located in the Prime Minister and Cabinet portfolio, and ANAO employees are Commonwealth public servants, as are employees of DIRDC. So that despite the independence of the ANAO process, we have one group of public servants reporting on the competence of another group of public servants.

The intra-governmental nature of the Audit Report is easy to see as almost without exception the 113 footnotes in the Report are either explanatory notes on the ANAO's own behalf, or Commonwealth/government-initiated communications, letters, and reports, or those of their consultants and appointees. The former Norfolk Island Government provides source for one footnote, as does the Norfolk Island Regional Council. There is a view that we should not be too concerned with this circumstance – after all the audit is primarily concerned with assessing one Commonwealth agency's performance. However we do need to be aware of the audit's characteristics and limitations.

Public service protocols ensure that public reports by public servants will be in sober tones, with no use of rude, abrasive or emotional language as one might find in say, some independent journalism. So one will not find such crude and direct statements like "DIRDC failed to accomplish what it was responsible for", but rather something like "DIRDC was partially successful in its mission". The over-riding characteristics of public service reports are circumspection and euphemism. There are also other subtle forces working to ensure that such reports resemble blancmange rather than curry. For example public servants tend not to want to rock the boat too much as that might embarrass a minister or two, and could damage their (the public servants') immediate career prospects. Anyone who has watched episodes of the British political sitcom Yes Minister will not find such a circumstance surprising. Some readers of the ANAO Report may well find themselves impatient with this anodyne fare.

Here is a key observation from the Report's conclusions:

The department's advice to the Australian Government presented a range of reform options, which was based on an assessment of Norfolk Island's self-governance arrangements and input from a community consultation process. Elements of the reform design relating to state and local government services could have benefitted from more detailed analysis. (p. 8)

We will consider what the ANAO thought of the "self-governance arrangements" and the "community consultation process" in more detail below, but the final sentence here conveys the blandness within which the Report's conclusions are couched. Here are some further examples:

Roles and responsibilities for the implementation of the reforms were clearly outlined, but the department's prioritisation plans lacked appropriate detail.(p. 8)

Arrangements established for the oversight of the Norfolk Island Health Residential Aged Care Service (NIHRACS) were inappropriate. (p. 9)

That's about as fiery as the Report gets. Whether these and other criticisms in the Report amount to a caning of DIRDC or merely a flogging with a feather duster, is difficult for someone outside the system to tell. But criticisms of DIRDC there are in the ANAO Report, even if self-effacingly expressed.

One major concern with this intra-governmental audit process – at least in the present example – is an acceptance of the governmental view of events, with alternatives or criticisms squeezed out or disregarded completely. (In this regard we have already mentioned the matter of text references.) Here are some other examples.

In relation to the econometric studies carried out by CiE on the Norfolk Island economy in 2014, the ANAO Report states:

A November 2014 report commissioned by the department provided modelling of the economic impact of extending Commonwealth taxation, social security, superannuation and the minimum wage to Norfolk Island. The modelling showed that if Commonwealth arrangements were implemented, the expected ‘higher level of economic activity, increased employment and wages combine to see (nominal) household consumption each year being some $20 million higher than otherwise.’ (p. 24)

This is a deceptive statement because it accepts the conclusion of a DIRDC-sponsored study which was heavily and comprehensively criticised at the time by an independent econometric modelling expert Professor Michael Common, formerly of the Australian National University and at that time at Strathclyde University in the UK. And furthermore there was no mention in the Report of an earlier and similar econometric study by CiE, suppressed by the Commonwealth, which reached a very different conclusion. (2)

Again, in relation to the "community consultation process" carried out on the island in the lead-up to the implementation of the 2015 Act, the ANAO Report states:  

In his report to the Minister on the consultation process, the Administrator stated that ‘there is now widespread general agreement with the JSC recommendations.’ The Administrator’s report, which formed part of the submission to the Australian Government, included dissenting views and commentary from the public meeting for the Australian Government’s consideration. (p. 27)

This merely accepts the Administrator's view of the process, which was against the totality of evidence in the public domain, to the contrary. The Administrator's view was widely discussed and challenged at the time, but never defended. (4) The Audit Report appears to have declined to investigate the truth or falsity of this matter, of which it was well aware (5), choosing rather to ignore the matter completely.

Again in terms of the "community consultation process", the fact that over years DIRDC systematically declined to respond to queries put to them by members of the Norfolk Island public, did not even rate a mention in the Report as relevant to DIRDC's performance.

Well, in responding to these claims of ignore, one view would be that, of necessity, ANAO must of take a circumscribed view of the area it will consider. But there is a problem: Where does that leave the audit assessment when it is made on only a part of the evidence? The fact that "modelling of the economic impact" and a "community consultation process" were carried out by DIRDC is in practice meaningless: what is relevant is the content of those exercises. The constriction of the area of interest that the ANAO was prepared to entertain in its audit, and the steering away from controversy, are problematic because ANAO evidently wants to appeal in its assessment to broad merit but then takes a very limited view of the information it is prepared to accept. The Report provides no indication as to what the legitimate bounds of its exercise are, and without it the Report must be taken as compromised and deceptive.

This article will continue next week when some more general matters will be considered.

Chris Nobbs

(1) ANAO, 2019. The design, implementation and monitoring of services reform on Norfolk Island, Auditor-General Report No. 43, 2018-19, 31 May.

(2)  Common, M., 2015. A Comparison of Two CIE Reports (2006, 2014) on the Economic Impact of

Norfolk Island Reform Scenarios. Also: Nobbs, C., 2015. Norfolk Island Reform Scenarios - Comparing the two CIE reports (2006 and 2014), The Norfolk Islander and Norfolk Online News, 28 November; reproduced in (3).

(3) Nobbs, C, 2017. Australia's Assault on Norfolk Island 2015-16: Despatches from the Front Line, Amazon, pp. 30-33.

(4) For example: Nobbs, C., 2016. Was there ever a majority of Norfolk Islanders in favour of the removal of self-government? The Norfolk Islander and Norfolk Online News, 13 February. Reproduced in (3), pp. 60-66.

(5) Nobbs, C., 2019. Submission to ANAO Performance Audit of DIRDC, 11 November.

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