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Norfolk Island Health and Residential Aged Care Service – Update

Thursday, October 31, 2019

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Norfolk Island Health and Residential Aged Care Service – Update

Friday, October 18, 2019

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Fishing with Greenwoods Fishing Adventures

Friday, October 18, 2019

With a few wild days of weather there was only a couple time for a couple of fishing trips this past week. Here on Norfolk Island we are so spoilt with excellent fishing on most trips but every now and then it’s a little bit slower than we are used to and we say we’ve “struggled”,  but in fact we’ve still caught more fish in a few hours than most fishermen get in a year. After the full moon last Sunday this week was always going to be tougher fishing than most weeks but even then we had a great catch. Sweetlip were only biting for a limited time but the kingies were on! Between two of us we caught 25 over the morning with many over a meter. I also caught a 30lb Snapper while fishing for kings which we released to breed up and give our visiting fisherman a chance to catch one while on Greenwoods Fishing Adventures. The week ahead looks reasonable so let’s go fishing!

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Self-Injury – The hidden side of a visible problem

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Extract from an article in INPSYCH, October 2018

Published with kind permission of the author, Clinical Psychologist Lee-Ellen Bresland

Non-suicidal self- injury (NSSI) is well documented as a behaviour occurring in community settings and, sadly, there is now a generation of young people without significant psychiatric issues who self-injure. Many of these young people appear well adjusted with supportive social networks. However, the fact that they are turning to self injury to help cope with the stresses of life suggests there are problems with managing psychological distress.

Non-suicidal self- injury (NSSI) refers to a range of distressing and disturbing behaviours that involve the intentional, self-inflicted destruction of body tissue without suicidal intent carried out for the purposes that are not socially sanctioned (International Society for the Study of Self-Injury, 2007). Cutting is the most well-known NSSI behaviour, but NSSI behaviours may take the form of self-inflicted punching, hitting or slapping, scratching, biting, burning, gouging, carving words or symbols into flesh, piercing the skin with things, interfering with wound healing, and breaking bones.

For young people experiencing feelings of isolation, online connections and social media can be appealing. These anonymous social media interactions help form important relationships with others to whom they can relate. The less positive aspect of social media is that it enhances the likelihood of social contagion, with many vulnerable young people connecting to similar others through social modelling in influential and high-profile songs, books, movies, and other communications. Alternatively, online communication can offer those who self-injure positive opportunities to find assistance to move them towards ceasing the behaviours.

Defining the terms

By definition, NSSI lacks suicidal intent and typically involves efforts to manage overwhelming emotional distress, such as anxiety, sadness, guilt, emptiness, or disassociation, so as to gain relief. NSSI is also more prevalent, and involves multiple methods (e.g., burning and cutting rather than more potentially lethal methods such as shooting or hanging) resulting in physical harm that is of low medical severity and rarely fatal compared to suicide attempts (Pompili et. al., 2015).

Who self-injures

There is no particular kind of person who self-injures. NSSI crosses ethnicity, age, gender and social class. However, self-injury typically begins in early adolescence and peaks at mid-to-late adolescence. Studies have shown 20 percent of those engaging in NSSI reported onset between the ages of 11 and 13 (Jacobson, Uyeji & McCloskey, 2018). Some studies have shown a second peak occurring at around 20 years of age and NSSI can begin as late as middle age or even older.

Why do people self-injure

Furthermore, they suggested that adolescents engage in NSSI for such reasons as, to stop undesirable thoughts and feelings, to generate some kind of feeling, even pain, to escape interpersonal tasks or demands and to gain attention from others.

Emotion-regulation overwhelmingly emerges as the most commonly supported function of self- injury in both adolescent and adult samples. Negative feeling such sadness and anxiety precede NSSI, and the act of NSSI reduces arousal and negative emotions resulting in feelings of calmness and relief (Klonsky, 2007). Explanations for self-injury include “to release emotional pressure that builds up inside of me”, “to manage stress”or “to stop bad feelings”(Klonsky & Meuhlenkamp, 2007).

More than half of those who self- injure endorsed self-punishment or self-directed anger as a motivation for NSSI (Klonsky, 2007).

People who self-injure endorsed multiple functions of NSSI such as a desire to seek help from or influence others, or to create a physical sign of their emotional distress. Other NSSI functions identified include anti-disassociation (e.g., creating pain to end numbness), anti-suicide (e.g., to avoid or replace the impulse to commit suicide) and sensation seeking (e.g., doing something to generate excitement).

Time to act

NSSI has become more common, and its prevalence may be increasing in adolescent and young people. This makes it an important area of focus for psychologists. NIHRACS Psychologist’s Felicity Wiseman, Child and Adolescent, 51399 or Margie Meagher, Mental Health, 56400 are available for consultation.


Mental Health First Aid Australia (2014) developed guidelines which may be helpful for members of the public in responding to NSSI prior to seeking appropriate professional help:  A series of five informative e-books has been developed by the Centre for Suicide Prevention Studies at the University of Queensland under the series name “Seeking Solutions to Self-injury”. These guides inform a number of different populations (emergency staff, family doctors, school staff, young people; and parents and families) and provide an excellent basis for responding to individuals who engage in NSSI.

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Norfolk Island Health and Residential Aged Care Service – Update

Thursday, October 10, 2019

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What's on this week at Anglicare?

Thursday, October 10, 2019

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What's on the Week at Anglicare?

Thursday, October 03, 2019

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How does a country become a country? An expert explains.

Thursday, October 03, 2019

August 3, 2017 7.27pm AEST

Rebecca Richards

Lecturer in International Relations, Keele University

Within the space of a week this autumn, the people of Catalonia and Kurdistan will be asked if they want to live in an independent country. If these two referendums result in declarations of independence, what happens next? It may seem straightforward that Kurdistan, Catalonia, or even both would become the world’s newest countries. But it’s not that simple.

International law states that people have the right to determine their own destiny, including political status. Our right of self-determination is enshrined in the UN Charter, and clarified in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This could be taken as the right to have sovereign statehood recognised by the international community. However, it’s most often interpreted as the right of a population to determine how they are governed and who governs them. In other words, self-determination in today’s world most often pertains to choices within an existing country rather than as a path to new statehood.

This is partly because the laws on self-determination were mostly written during the period of decolonisation. That historical context cannot be ignored when interpreting their purpose. During that time, colonial powers were taking steps towards dismantling their empires. They had become expensive to maintain and political pressure was growing within the colonies themselves.

Creating a country

Another complicating factor in setting up a country is the fact that, for one territory to become a new state, another already existing sovereign state must lose some of its territory. That would violate the laws and norms of territorial integrity. These are some of the oldest and most steadfast rules underpinning the international system.

Recognition of a new state essentially means legally recognising the transfer of sovereignty over a territory from one authority to another. An international body, including the UN, cannot just take away territory without the permission of the original “host” state. To do so would be a violation of one of the defining rules of the system of states.

Kosovo, for example, declared independence from Serbia in 2008 but even to this day it doesn’t have sovereign statehood – despite more than half of the UN’s member states recognising its independence. This is largely because Serbia still claims sovereign control over the territory, although other factors are certainly also at play. In the same way, Iraq would have to relinquish sovereign control over territory in order for Kurdistan to become a state.

There are obvious competing and contradicting legal principles here. In at least one instance, these contradictions appear together within the same law. Indeed, what we find is that there is no clear legal path to obtaining sovereign statehood. There is also no legally established mechanism for who determines whether a territory becomes a sovereign state. So we have to look at previous examples to work out how it’s done.

Catalan president Carles Puigdemont addresses an independence rally. EPA

The world’s most recent states are South Sudan, which was recognised in 2011 and East Timor, which was recognised in 2002. In the early 1990s, there was a wave of new states due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the breakup of Yugoslavia. In 1993, Eritrea also became a state after a decades-long war with Ethiopia, which had annexed Eritrea in 1962. Prior to that, the world’s new states emerged out of the shifting or collapse of empires, most notable with the end of colonialism.

For East Timor and South Sudan, and in many ways Eritrea, statehood was part of attempts to resolve another problem: violent conflict. In all three cases, the host state (Indonesia for East Timor; Sudan for South Sudan; Ethiopia for Eritrea) agreed to relinquish control of the territory as part of negotiated peace agreements.

All of these new states obtained sovereignty after the disappearance of their former sovereign power, or with the permission of their former sovereign power. What they all have in common is that they became states in order to resolve some kind of problem, meaning there was some international benefit to their recognition. For the world’s newest states, their recognition was more of a political act than a legally defined process.

When is a state recognised as independent?

Although it’s not clearly laid out in law, a territory essentially becomes a sovereign state when its independence is recognised by the United Nations. As the largest and most inclusive multilateral organisation, its sanctioning of sovereign statehood makes sense.

But while procedures for admitting new members are clearly laid out in the Charter and in the rules of the UN, these rules pertain to new members that are already sovereign states. Yet again there is ambiguity in the process that aspiring states must go through in order to become sovereign.

Becoming an internationally recognised sovereign country is not a clear or straightforward process. In many ways, it is determined by power and the international political climate of the day. And a surprising number of entities exist as unrecognised states, many for decades, without recognition of sovereignty.

If Catalonia or Kurdistan declare their independence this autumn, they may get sovereign statehood if their host states agree. If not, though, they could choose to declare their independence, and to exist as an unrecognised state indefinitely.

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Life on the West Island - Pea and thimble trick

Friday, September 06, 2019

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News from Probus Club of Norfolk Island

Thursday, September 05, 2019

This week the Probus Club of Norfolk Island hosted visitors from two clubs in Australia. Twenty visitors from the Albury Central Probus Club (NSW) and eight members of the Redlands Probus Club (Qld) were visiting Norfolk Island and joined our local members for a rollicking morning tea at Christian’s Cave. This was the Albury club's first visit to Norfolk Island, although the tour leader, Kathy Alexander, is a passionate friend of the island, this being her 20th visit. Redlands is one of the oldest Probus Clubs in Queensland and it was exciting for our members to hear about all their social activities despite the average age of their members being significantly older than our locals.

Like all Probus clubs, fellowship and fun are the cornerstone of both visiting clubs’ activities. Their travel tends to be more adventurous than our local group as both hail from areas rich in fascinating history and natural wonders to explore with day trips, while some of their members enjoy sharing international travel together. One of the greatest benefits of Probus is the opportunity to join up with other retired or semi-retired people from all walks of life, and to share interests. Norfolk Island is always a very popular destination for Probus travellers because of its fascinating history, diverse natural environment, and mix of people with the common love of hospitality. Our visitors were enthralled to hear about life on Norfolk Island and many agreed they will be back soon.

Our club meets every month on the first Tuesday from 9.30 AM and we enjoy interesting talks from guest speakers before sharing a lovely morning tea and catch-up with friends. We also have several groups that meet regularly including our reading group, social outings to local places like the Bounty Folk Museum, and a Seniors Yoga group starting soon. New members are always warmly welcomed so if you are looking for a great opportunity to get to know locals, call Fenella on 50628 or Clare on 53460

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